Bildung - Forschung - Entwicklung

External Evaluation of TEMPUS I and the first two years of TEMPUS II


After the fall of the "e;iron curtain"e; and the "e;velvet re-volutions"e; in Central and Eastern Europe, in 1989, the European Commission quickly decided about a support programme (Phare) to help economic and social restructuring. One of its elements became the TEMPUS Programme. TEMPUS was modelled on the ERASMUS Programme, supporting international cooperation of higher education institutions in the framework of joint projects and mobility. Since education plays an important role for economic and social renewal, TEMPUS was intended to help the process of transformation in a number of direct and indirect ways. The TEMPUS Programme was launched by the Council of the European Communities on 7 May 1990.

The framework in which activities were supported under TEMPUS (Phare) required a collaboration of higher education institutions from the CEE countries and the EU Member States. Enterprises and other organisations from both groups of countries could participate in TEMPUS as well. The collaboration took place in the framework of Joint European Projects (JEPs) and was based on cooperation, knowledge transfer, equipment aid, structural and curricular development, student and staff exchange.

In order to acquire information about the results of the TEMPUS Programme in terms of implementation, administration and activities, a major evaluation was undertaken from 1995 - 1997. All coordinators and partners from institutions of higher education, non-profit organisations and private enterprises in the member states of the European Union and eligible countries in Central and Eastern Europe participating in TEMPUS Joint European Projects were surveyed with the help of written questionnaires. Furthermore interviews were undertaken with participants in JEPs, rectors of higher education institutions, programme administrators and representatives from ministeries of education in the targeted countries in Central and Eastern Europe.


European Commission

Zeitraum: 1995 - 1997


Centre for Research on Higher Education and Work at the University of Kassel, Germany


KEHM, Barbara; MAIWORM, Friedhelm; OVER, Albert; REISZ, Roni; STEUBE, Wolfgang; TEICHLER, Ulrich: Integrating Europe Through Co-operation Among Universities. The Experience of the TEMPUS Programme. Jessica Kingsley Publishers Ltd. London 1997.

MAIWORM, Friedhelm: Die Evaluation von TEMPUS I: Ergebnisse und Schlußfolgerungen. In: 7. TEMPUS-Jahrestagung des DAAD. Bonn 1997.

MAIWORM, Friedhelm: Die Evaluation von TEMPUS I: Ein Arbeitsbericht.

In: 6. TEMPUS-Jahrestagung des DAAD. Bonn 1996.


Friedhelm Maiworm (e-Mail:; phone: +49-561-72975-44)